See all kinds of nouns and how to use them

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In Portuguese, words have not only their own meanings, they have different classes and genders, and can be classified into different groups for different purposes, such as verbs, adjectives and nouns.

A word is defined as a set of letters, which when united form a group of specific sound, and from this association can be related to a distinct element, serving as a written or oral representation for a symbol.

This association between words and their meanings is defined by the society in which it is found, taking into account cultural and social issues. It's what's behind different languages and languages, which in different ways relate to a component.

For example, in Brazil a garbage can with wheels is called precisely that way, or by some variation, such as trash can with wheels. In English this object is referred to as "trash can with wheels”, which has the same meaning.

Regardless of the version or language used, the 3 terms are related to a single sign, a model of a garbage can with training wheels. This explains how words can organize themselves in different ways, and reach the same consensus.

In addition to language, grammar class is another factor that defines the meaning of a word. A set of letters that reference some action is known as a verb. A term related to the characteristics of something or someone is called an adjective.

Now the focus of this text is to talk about one of the most comprehensive grammatical classes that exist, which are nouns. This is because they do not refer to a specific set, but stand out for their breadth, being responsible for naming everything.

Despite some exaggeration, this is in a way the conception of what a noun is. A term related to naming someone, such as an animal (zebra), a person (Mary), a feeling (joy) or an object (column fire hydrant).

Trying to simplify, the noun is responsible for naming all things, both real and immaterial, and it manages to do this because of the variety of styles it has.

Types of nouns

Nouns can be categorized into different classifications, which are:

  • Common noun;
  • Proper noun;
  • Simple noun;
  • Compound noun;
  • Collective noun;
  • Primitive noun;
  • Derived noun;
  • Concrete noun;
  • Abstract noun.

These different classifications highlight the variety of meanings that this group has. And one would expect no less from a class of words responsible for naming practically everything known to human beings. 

Now is the time to catch up on Portuguese classes and understand the meaning of each of these classifications, which will include words like: doll, constitution, electric thermography, bullet and sadness.

The characteristic that unites these different terms is that they are all nouns. There is also the gender of the words, but that is a subject later on.

Common and proper noun

A common noun is the concept of a generic term in your group, such as a hat, an animal, a song, or a cup of coffee. A proper noun refers to something specific, such as the name of a person or a place.

Some examples of proper nouns are: Eduardo, Estonia and Europa, to focus only on words that start with the letter “E”. A clear difference in the writing of these nouns is that the common ones begin with a lowercase letter, while the common ones begin with a capital letter.

It is also necessary to pay attention to the context in which they are being used, as the same word can fit as a common and proper noun, depending only on the situation in which it finds itself.

The word “brooms” can refer to the plural of broom, the household cleaning object, as well as the municipality of Vassouras, located in the Center-South region of Rio de Janeiro.

Simple and compound noun

A simple noun is formed by a single root, that is, a single element that indicates the basic meaning of a word, while a compound noun is formed by two different radicals, complementing a single word.

Explaining: foot and kid are called as simple nouns, as each term has its own meaning. When joined together, they form the word peanut, which refers to a candy made from peanuts.

Other compound nouns are: hobby, sugar cane, microwave, some linking the terms, as in the word parachute, while others keep their radicals separate as in the fennel plant.

Care must be taken not to confuse the union between a noun and an adjective with a compound noun, such as industrial cooler, in which the word industrial refers to a refrigerator model, is therefore an adjective.

collective noun

Collective nouns belong to a class that synthesizes a group of beings or objects through a single word, such as pack in relation to a group of dogs or wolves, archipelago in relation to a group of islands, among others.

Some other examples of collective nouns are:

  • Swarm – Bees;
  • Class – Students;
  • Squadron – Ships;
  • Sauce – Keys;
  • Bouquet – Flowers;
  • School – Fish;
  • Litter – Puppies.

Collective nouns differ from others in that they do not work with a derivation of words, bringing different terms from the original word, to symbolize this set.

Primitive and derivative noun

This relationship between an origin word and its derivations is what defines the difference between a primitive noun and a derivative. Words like dentist and denture come from the same base term, the word tooth.

This derivation can go beyond the nouns, forming other classes of words, such as verbs and adjectives. Such as idolize, which derives from the noun “idol”, or a industrial cleaning, in which the second term refers to the word “industry”.

Concrete and abstract noun

These noun classes work with the materiality of an object, differing according to the tangibility of the specific material. 

It seems difficult to understand, but this concept starts from a simple knowledge, about things that exist physically.

A toy and a ball are taken as concrete nouns, given their materiality, that is, they are palpable things to see and touch.

On the other hand, the words play and fun, results of the action practiced with the concrete terms mentioned, deal with issues of an untouchable nature, and are therefore defined as abstract nouns.

They are often linked to terms such as feelings or sensations, such as love, anger, fear and cold. They are concepts that are easy to understand, but they do not have a material value, they are abstract, and that is why they are encompassed by this group of nouns.

To fully understand this difference, we can take, for example, the phrasal construction "stretcher rental”, in which the term locação, referring to the verb to rent, is an abstract noun, different from stretcher, a palpable object, hence a concrete noun.

Veja todos os tipos de substantivos e como usá-los

One sentence application

The simplest way to understand the difference between these nouns is through a sentence application. So much so that this action is one of the most important tips in spelling competitions held in schools across the country.

In the sentence "I needed to buy one acoustic barrier for my mansion, because the loud sounds of the neighborhood bother me”, three types of nouns stand out, namely:

  • Barrier - simple and common noun
  • Palacete – noun derived from the word palace
  • Sound - abstract noun
  • Neighborhood – collective noun for the term neighbor.

In this way, it is possible to understand how to classify each type of noun.

Veja todos os tipos de substantivos e como usá-los

good command of the language

To write a text correctly, it is necessary to know the language, requiring greater knowledge than in oral communication, which allows for a more informal tone, depending on the context of the conversation, such as a chat with friends or a meeting.

When it comes to written language, the need to know the rules and specifications of each language allows for a better textual construction, whether for an essay on the university entrance exam or an artistic poem.

Literary genres, each with its own particularities, require a certain adaptation by their authors, knowing how to connect nouns, adjectives and verbs in phrasal constructions that best present a content or an idea.

An informative story about the need for a LPS project (Atmospheric Discharge Protection System) for the construction of a building, for example, requires the use of technical terms, which explain the function of the system.

At the same time, this text can use a more informal language, in order to explain in a simple way how this program works.

The versatility of nouns and their connecting elements can transform the way in which the reader has access to this content, and through a simple reading, the better understanding of the subject covered in it will be better.

Knowing your language allows for a better form of communication, revealing not only the individual's intellectuality, but also reinforcing their capacity for dialogue, adapting to the most diverse situations.

This text was originally developed by the blog team Investment Guide, where you can find hundreds of informative content on different segments.